Clinical Evidence

Clinical evidence of the multiple benefits of physical therapy provided by Lambda are widely represented in litterature. Here you will find various examples along with publication references of principles used in the Lambda concept.


Feedback to patients as to how they perform motor tasks during gait rehabilitation has been shown to improve performance and learning. All types of sensory feedback can be associated to significant short and long-term positive outcomes [4].

Bilateral Training

Symmetric movements of the paretic and nonparetic limb related to bilateral training reduce the disinhibition of the corticomotor networks and improve motor control [16].

Robotic Training

People who receive electromechanical-assisted gait training in combination with physiotherapy after having suffered a stroke are more likely to achieve independent walking than people who receive gait training without these devices [12].


There are significantly higher rates of attaining independent walking in end-effector training sessions as compared to exoskeleton-based training [13].


Post-stroke rehabilitation increases motor brain reorganization, while lack of rehabilitation reduces reorganization. Functional reorganization of the cortex is more effective for tasks that are meaningful; repetitive activity is not enough [4]. More intensive motor training increases brain reorganization. The greater the intensity of the therapies, the better the outcomes [4].

Repetitive and progressive

As with all aspects of stroke rehabilitation, the training regimen should emphasize repetition, gradually progressive task difficulty, adaptive training and functional practice [3],[5]. Patients should engage in training that is meaningful, engaging, progressively adaptive, intensive, task-specific and goal-oriented in an effort to improve transfer skills and mobility. Patients should receive rehabilitation therapies of appropriate intensity and duration, individually designed to meet their needs for optimal recovery and tolerance levels [6]. Interventions involving repetitive practice improve strength after stroke and are accompanied by improvements in activity [10].

Cost Effective

Solutions which allow efficient use of the physical therapist’s time are highly sought after. Therapies that allow patients to exercise for longer time periods within the same available time slot are more and more in demand [7] and furthermore save costs. There is a direct relationship between the effectiveness of the therapy and additional treatment time [8].


Periodic assessments with the same standardized tools to document progress in rehabilitation are needed [3].

Virtual Reality

Virtual Reality helps the patient to obtain an impression of movement and thereby gets the patients engaged mentally in training [9]. When VR therapy replaced standard rehab, walking speed, balance and mobility were significantly improved [14].

Mirror Therapy

There is evidence that mirror therapy in combination with other therapies or even alone improves motor function in patients suffering a stroke [4], [15].


When spasticity occurs, the cost of care is 4 times higher than when spasticity is absent. The prevalence of post stroke spasticity in any limb ranges from 25% to 43% in the first year after a stroke [3].

Bibliographic references